• The Eddystone Story

    The Eddystone Story

      The Eddystone Story By Walter J. Kuleck, Ph.D.   The war activities of the Baldwin Locomotive Works also included the construction of two large plants on their property at Eddystone for the manufacture of rifles and ammunition, and accomplishments in this connection constitute a series of achievements worthy of record. On April 30, 1915, the British Government placed a contract with the Remington Arms Company of Delaware for 1,500,000 rifles to be manufactured in one of the plants mentioned above, under the general direction of Mr. S. M. Vauclain. The work of constructing equipping and organizing this enormous plant was fully accomplished, and production established by December 31, 1915,…

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      THE GUAM GARANDS   Introduction In all military conflicts, the price of an objective is paid with the lives of combatants.  Historically it has been considered that the force armed with superior weapons incurs fewer casualties and has a greater chance of victory.  For this reason tacticians and military historians have studied small arms for centuries.  As the appreciation for the development of small arms grew, and people began to accumulate these pieces of history into collections, so did the interest in where and how they may have been used.  As the conflict or event passes further into history, and we begin to rely more upon what is written…

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    The M1C Sniper Rifle

      The M1C Sniper Rifle by Scott A. Duff   Two telescope-mounted versions of the M1 rifle were developed at Springfield Armory for use by snipers. They were designated the M1C and M1D. The M1C was adopted as standard on 27 July 1944. A Lyman produced M81 or M82 telescope was mounted with a two-piece system consisting of a mount bracket and Griffin & Howe telescope mount. The mount bracket was aligned to the left side of the receiver by two taper pins and attached with three socket head cap screws. Therefore, all M1C rifles had five holes in the left side of the receiver, three were tapped, and two…

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    The M1D Sniper Rifle

    The M1D Sniper Rifle by Scott A. Duff   Two telescope-mounted versions of the M1 rifle were developed at Springfield Armory for use by snipers. They were designated the M1C and M1D. The M1D was adopted as substitute standard in September 1944. The M1D utilized a machined base fitted around the chamber end of the barrel and secured with a pin to attach the telescope mount. There is no evidence that M1Ds were produced for distribution during World War II. Further, other than a few rifles used during development, it is believed that all M1Ds were created by rebuilding existing service rifles beginning in the early 1950s and continuing through…

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    National Match M1 Rifles

      National Match M1 Rifles by Scott Duff   Perhaps the most refined version of the M1 is that known as the National Match (NM) rifle. In March 1953, Springfield Armory was directed by the Ordnance Department to furnish 800 M1 rifles for use at the High Power National Matches at Camp Perry, Ohio. These rifles were to be capable of a higher degree of accuracy than standard service grade rifles. These first NM Garands consisted of only a NM marked barrel. The remainder of the rifle consisted of hand-selected components. The rifles were carefully assembled and the trigger pull adjusted by Springfield ArmoryÂ’s most skilled armorers. National Match conditioned…

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    Who Made M1 Garands? How Many Were Made? When Were They Made?

      Who Made M1 Garands? How Many Were Made? When Were They Made? by Scott Duff   World War II Production Springfield Armory The first production M1 was successfully proof fired, function fired, and fired for accuracy on 21 July 1937. Thus began manufacture of what was to become the greatest production effort in the long history of Springfield Armory. A program for developing increased production capacity had been adopted in 1934, and by January of 1940 the Armory was producing 100 rifles per day. By January 1942 this number had risen to 1,103 per day. Production peaked in January 1944 with 122,001 M1s produced that month. This translated to…

  • Receiver heat lot code O 37 B (with diamond indicating 8620 steel)

    What Is Heat Lot Number??

      What Is Heat Lot Number By Scott Duff   Another factor (in addition to drawing numbers) used in the identification of Springfield Armory manufactured receivers, barrels, and bolts is the “heat lot” number. This is an alphanumeric code used by the Armory to identify the discrete lot of steel from which these three critical components were manufactured. Springfield Armory stamped the heat lot of the batch of steel used in the manufacture these three components in a location near the drawing number. The identification of the lot of steel used in manufacture of a group of components could be very important from a manufacturing perspective. Should a metallurgical problem…

  • Receiver drawing number D 28291, revision number 27

    What Is A Drawing Number??

      What Is A Drawing Number??   An understanding of the engineering drawing numbers which were stamped on some M1 parts is necessary in order to fully comprehend the evolution of those components. For example: A hammer may be marked C46008-2 SA. The “C” designates the physical size of the drawing. The “46008” is the engineering drawing number. The “-2” is the production revision to the drawing. And finally, the “SA” indicates that this part was manufactured by Springfield Armory. The first production rifles manufactured by Springfield Armory were marked with an engineering drawing number on virtually every part which was large enough to be stamped—and even some that were…

  • What's a "Tanker" Garand

    What’s a “Tanker” Garand?

      What’s a “Tanker” Garand? By Walter J. Kuleck, Ph.D.   The “Tanker Garand” is a “misnomer.” During WWII two separate prototypes were developed for paratroop use. The first was the M1E5. The M1E5 had a short barrel and a folding metal stock. It was developed and tested in the Summer of 1944, but then abandoned because of the loud report and large muzzle flash from the short barrel. In the fall of 1944 the Pacific Warfare Board ordered a test quantity of 150 M1 Rifles to be shortened and tested for jungle and paratroop use. These conversions were rather crudely done in the Pacific Theatre of Operations, either in…

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    What were the origins of the Garand? “Our New Service Rifle (1938)”

      OUR NEW SERVICE RIFLE   JOHN CANTIUS GARAND1888-1974 A Quiet Genius Who GaveTo His Adopted Country“The Greatest Battle Implement Ever Devised”The M1 Rifle from the inscriptionon the John C. Garand bustat the Springfield Armory National Historic SiteDonated by the Membership of theGarand Collectors AssociationJune 6, 1994   For more than thirty years the Ordnance Department endeavored to obtain a satisfactory semi-automatic or self-loading rifle to replace the bolt action Springfield. These efforts were not confined to development within the Department. Invitations were extended periodically to gun designers in this country and abroad to submit weapons for test, and tests were made of those received which showed any promise of…